Who Invented the Enneagram?
Stemming from the Greek words ennea (nine) and grammos (a written or drawn symbol), the Enneagram was borne out of ancient tradition. It was introduced to the modern world in 1915 as a human development system by philosopher and teacher George Gurdjieff. In the late 1960s, Oscar Ichazo, founder of the Arica School, placed nine personality types around the Enneagram diagram.
Soon after, Claudio Naranjo, MD, and other psychologists in Berkeley, CA, integrated the Enneagram with emerging developments in modern psychology. Since the 1970s, the Enneagram has been developed as a modern psychological system by Claudio Naranjo, MD and other psychologists in California, including Helen Palmer and David Daniels, MD. Loyola University in Chicago was also an early center of Enneagram work. Learn more >